A1C - A test that sums up how much glucose has been sticking to part of the hemoglobin during the past three to four months. Hemoglobin is a substance in the red blood cells that supplies oxygen to the cells of the body. The A1C goal for patients in general is an A1C of less than seven percent. The A1C goal for the individual patient is an A1C as close to six percent as possible without a considerable amount of low blood glucose.

Blood glucose (or blood sugar) - The main sugar that the body makes from the food we eat. Glucose is carried through the bloodstream to provide energy to all of the body's living cells. The cells cannot use glucose without the help of insulin.

Carbohydrate - One of three main groups of foods in the diet that provide calories and energy. (Protein and fat are the others.) Carbohydrates are mainly sugars (simple carbohydrates) and starches (complex carbohydrates, such as those found in bread, pasta and beans) that the body breaks down into glucose.

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) - retains fluids and harmful wastes build up because the kidneys no longer work properly.

Dehydration - The loss of too much body fluid through frequent urinating, sweating, diarrhea or vomiting.

Diabetes - The short name for the disease called diabetes mellitus. Diabetes results when the body cannot use blood glucose as energy because of having too little insulin or being unable to use insulin. See also type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes.

Diabetes pills - Pills or capsules that are taken by mouth to help lower the blood glucose level. These pills may work for people whose bodies are still making insulin.

Diabetic eye disease - A disease of the small blood vessels of the retina of the eye in people with diabetes. In this disease, the vessels swell and leak liquid into the retina, blurring the vision and sometimes leading to blindness.

Diabetic ketoacidosis - High blood glucose with the presence of ketones in the urine and bloodstream often caused by taking too little insulin or during illness.

Diabetic kidney disease - Damage to the cells or blood vessels of the kidney.

Diabetic nerve damage - Damage to the nerves of a person with diabetes. Nerve damage may affect the feet and hands, as well as major organs.

Dialysis - A method for removing waste from the blood when the kidneys can no longer do the job.

Dilated eye exam - Eye drops are placed in the eyes to widen the pupils to see the retina better. The eye doctor will look for changes in the retina in the back of the eyes.

Diphtheria - An acute, contagious disease that causes fever and problems for the heart and nervous system.

EKG - A test that measures the heart's action. Also called an electrocardiogram.

Flu - An infection caused by the "flu" (short for "influenza") virus. The flu is a contagious viral illness that strikes quickly and severely. Signs include high fever, chills, body aches, runny nose, sore throat and headache.

Gestational diabetes - A type of diabetes that can occur in pregnant women who have not been known to have diabetes before.

GFR (glomerular filtration rate) - A measure of the kidney's ability to filter and remove waste products. It is the best test to measure kidney function and the stage of kidney disease.

Gingivitis - A swelling and soreness of the gums that, without treatment, can cause serious gum problems and disease.

Glucagon - A hormone that raises the blood glucose level.

Glucose - A sugar in our blood and a source of energy for our bodies.

Heart attack - Damage to the heart muscle caused when the blood vessels supplying the muscle are blocked, such as when the blood vessels are clogged with fats (a condition sometimes called hardening of the arteries).

HDL (high-density lipoprotein) - A combined protein and fat-like substance. Low in cholesterol, it usually passes freely through the arteries. Sometimes called "good cholesterol."

High blood glucose - A condition that occurs in people with diabetes when their blood glucose levels are too high. Symptoms include having to urinate often, severe thirst and weight loss.

High blood pressure - A condition where the blood circulates through the arteries with too much force. High blood pressure tires the heart, harms the arteries and increases the risk of heart attack, stroke and kidney problems.

Hormone - A chemical that special cells in the body release to help other cells work. For example, insulin is a hormone made in the pancreas to help the body use glucose as energy.

Hyperglycemia - See high blood glucose.

Hypertension - See high blood pressure.

Hypoglycemia - See low blood glucose.

Immunization - A shot or injection that protects a person from getting an illness by making the person "immune" to it. Also known as a vaccination.

Influenza - See flu.

Inject - To force a liquid into the body with a needle and syringe.

Insulin - A hormone that helps the body use blood glucose for energy. The beta cells of the pancreas make insulin. When people with diabetes can't make enough insulin, they may have to inject it from another source.

Insulin-dependent diabetes - See type 1 diabetes.

Ketones - Chemical substances that the body makes when it doesn't have enough insulin in the blood. When ketones build up in the body for a long time, serious illness or coma can result.

Kidneys - Twin organs found in the lower part of the back. The kidneys purify the blood of all waste and harmful material. They also control the level of some helpful chemical substances in the blood.

Laser surgery - Surgery that uses a strong ray of special light, called a laser, to treat damaged parts of the body. Laser surgery can help treat some diabetic eye diseases.

Low blood glucose - A condition that occurs in people with diabetes when their blood glucose levels are too low. Symptoms include feeling anxious or confused, feeling numb in the arms and hands, and shaking or feeling dizzy.

LDL (low-density lipoprotein) - A combined protein and fat-like substance. Rich in cholesterol, it tends to stick to the walls in the arteries. Sometimes called "bad cholesterol."

Meal plan - A guide to help people get the proper amount of calories, carbohydrates, proteins and fats in their diet.

Microalbumin - A protein found in blood plasma and urine. The presence of microalbumin in the urine can be a sign of kidney disease.

Nephropathy - See diabetic kidney disease.

Neuropathy - See diabetic nerve damage.

Non-insulin-dependent diabetes - See type 2 diabetes.

Pancreas - An organ in the body that makes insulin so that the body can use glucose for energy. The pancreas also makes enzymes that help the body digest food.

Periodontitis - A gum disease in which the gums shrink away from the teeth. Without treatment, it can lead to tooth loss.

Plaque - A film of mucus that traps bacteria on the surface of the teeth. Plaque can be removed with daily brushing and flossing of teeth.

Pumice stone - A special foot care tool used to gently file calluses as instructed by your healthcare team.

Retinopathy - See diabetic eye disease.

Risk factors - Traits that make it more likely that a person will get an illness. For example, a risk factor for getting type 2 diabetes is having a family history of diabetes.

Self-monitoring blood glucose - A way for people with diabetes to find out how much glucose is in their blood. A drop of blood from the fingertip is placed on a special coated strip of paper that "reads" (often through an electronic meter) the amount of glucose in the blood.

Stroke - Damage to a part of the brain that happens when the blood vessels supplying that part are blocked, such as when the blood vessels are clogged with fats (a condition sometimes called hardening of the arteries).

Support group - A group of people who share a similar problem or concern. The people in the group help one another by sharing experiences, knowledge and information.

Type 1 diabetes - A condition in which the pancreas makes so little insulin that the body can't use blood glucose as energy. People with type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day.

Type 2 diabetes - A condition in which the body either makes too little insulin or can't use the insulin it makes to use blood glucose as energy. All people with diabetes need to eat healthy foods, stay at a healthy weight and be active every day. People with type 2 diabetes often have to take diabetes pills or insulin. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes.

Ulcer - A break or deep sore in the skin. Germs can enter an ulcer and may be hard to heal.

Urea - One of the chief waste products of the body. When the body breaks down food, it uses what it needs and throws the rest away as waste. The kidneys flush the waste from the body in the form of urea, which is in the urine.

Vaccination - A shot given to protect against a disease. Also known as an immunization.

Vitrectomy - An operation to remove the blood that sometimes collects at the back of the eyes when a person has eye disease.

Yeast infection - A vaginal infection that is usually caused by a fungus. Women who have this infection may feel itching, burning when urinating and pain. Some women may have vaginal discharge as well. Yeast infections occur more frequently in women with diabetes.